George Mason University
George Mason University Mason
George Mason University

Benjamin Schwartz, MD

Adjunct Faculty

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Dr. Benjamin Schwartz is Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Global and Community Health. Dr. Schwartz’s research interests are communicable disease epidemiology and documenting effective strategies to improve population health outcomes and reduce disparities. He is an expert in the public health aspects of acute communicable diseases and the investigation and prevention of disease outbreaks. Before coming to Mason, Dr. Schwartz was the Deputy Director of Acute Communicable Disease Control at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health; the Director of the Global Health Program at CARE; the Senior Science Advisor at the National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health and Human Services; and he served in multiple positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including as an Associate Director for Science in the National Immunization Program.   


MD, Medicine, Washington University

BA, Biochemistry, Dartmouth College


Research Interests

  • Public Health
  • Communicable Disease
  • Population Health
  • Epidemiology
  • Health Disparities
  • Emerging Infections 


Owais A, Schwartz B, Kleinbaum DG, Suchdev PS, Faruque ASG, Das SK, Rahman S, Stein AD.  A nutrition education program in rural Bangladesh was associated with improved feeding practices but not with child growth.  J. Nutr 2017;147:948-54.

Owais A, Schwartz B, Kleinbaum DG, Suchdev PS, Faruque AS, Das SK, Stein AD.  Minimum acceptable diet at 9 months but not exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months or timely complementary feeding initiation is predictive of infant growth in rural Bangladesh.  PLoS One 2016;11:e065128.doi: 10.137/journal.pone.0165128.

Nanduri S, Foo C, Ngo V, Jarashow C, Civen R, Schwartz B, Holguin J, Shearer E, Zahn M, Harriman K, Winter K, Kretz C, Chang HY, Meyer S, MacNeil S. Outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal disease primarily affecting men who have sex with men — Southern California, 2016.  MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:1–3.

Owais A, Kleinbaum DG, Suchdev PS, Faruque A, Das SK, Schwartz B, Stein AD.  Household food security and infant feeding practices in Rural Bangladesh.  Public Health Nutr 2016;19:1875-81.

Thomas JS, Yu EA, Tirmizi N, Owais A, Das SK, Rahman S, Faruque AS, Schwartz B, Stein AD.  Maternal knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy in relation to intention to exclusively breastfeed among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh.  Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:49-57. 

Yu EA, Thomas JS, Owais A, Tirmizi N, Faruque A, Das SK, Rahman S, Schwartz B, Stein AD.  Maternal prenatal attitudes and postnatal breast-feeding behaviors in rural Bangladesh.  Public Health Nutr. 2015;18:679-85.

Croker C, Civen R, Keough K, Ngo V, Marutani A, Schwartz B. Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 30 among high school football players--Los Angeles County, California, 2014.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;63:1228.

Kwit N, Nelson C, Kugeler K, Petersen J, Plante L, Yaglom H, Kramer V, Schwartz B, House J, Colton L, Feldpausch A, Drenzek C, Baumbach J, DiMenna M, Fisher E, Debess E, Buttke D, Weinburke M, Percy C, Schriefer M, Gage K, Mead P.  Human plague – United States, 2015.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:918-9.

Kamali A, Bagchi CP, Mendoza E, Wilson D, Schwartz B, Mascola L.  Measles in a patient with presumed immunity – Los Angeles County, 2015.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:1123.

Croker C, Soriano J, Civen R, Larsen RA, Schwartz B. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:74.

Schwartz B, Orenstein WA.  Prioritization of pandemic influenza vaccine: rationale and strategy for decision-making.  Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;333:495-507.

Broder KR, Cohn AC, Schwartz B, Klein JD, Fisher MM, Fishbein DB, Mijalski C, Burstein GR, Vernon-Smiley ME, McCauley MM, Wibblesman CJ, Working Group on Adolescent Prevention Priorities.  Adolescent immunization and other clinical preventive services: a needle and a hook?  Pediatrics 2008;121 (suppl 1):s25-34.

Nuorti JP, Martin SW, Smith PJ, Moran JS, Schwartz B. Uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among children in the 1998-2002 United States birth cohorts. Am J Prev Med 2008;34:46-53.

Daneman N, Green KA, Low DE, Simor AE, Willey B, Schwartz B, Toye B, Jessamine P. Tyrrell GJ, Krajden S, Ramage L, Rose D, Schertzberg R, Bragg D, McGeer A, Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. Surveillance for hospital outbreaks of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada, 1992 to 2000.  Ann Int Med 2007;147:234-41.

Fairbrother G, Broder K, Staat MA, Schwartz B, Heubi C, Hiratzka S, Walker FJ, Morrow AL. Pediatricians' adherence to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine shortage recommendations in 2 national shortages.  Pediatrics 2007;120:e401-9.

Wortley PM, Levy PS, Quick L, Shoemaker TR, Dahlke MA, Evans B, Burke B, Schwartz B. Predictors of smallpox vaccination among healthcare workers and other first responders. Am J Prev Med 2007;32:538-41.

Payne DC, Franzke LH, Stehr-Green PA, Schwartz B, McNeil MM. Development of the Vaccine Analytic Unit's research agenda for investigating potential adverse events associated with anthrax vaccine adsorbed. Pharmacoepidemiology Drug Safety 2007;16:46-54.

Lindley MC, Wortley PM, Winston CA, Schwartz B. Programmatic factors related to smallpox vaccine uptake by healthcare workers and others. Infect Control Hosp Epi 2006;27:1242-5.

Schwartz B, Hinman A, Abramson J, Strikas RA, Allred N, Uyeki T, Orenstein W. Universal influenza vaccination in the United States: are we ready? Report of a meeting. J Infect Dis 2006;194 Suppl 2:S147-54.

Prosser LA, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM, Hinrichsen VL, Meltzer M, Molinari NA, Schwartz B. Thompson WW, Fukuda K, Lieu TA. Health benefits, risks, and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of children. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:1548-58.

Wortley PM, Schwartz B, Levy PS, Quick LM, Evans B, Burke B. Healthcare workers who elected not to receive smallpox vaccination. Am J Preventive Medicine 2006;30:258-65.

Gust DA, Campbell S, Kennedy A, Shui I, Barker L, Schwartz B. Parental concerns and medical-seeking behavior after immunization. Am J Preventive Med 2006;31:32-5.

Szilagyi PG, Griffin MR, Shone LP, Barth R, Zhu Y, Schaffer S, Ambrose S, Roy J, Poehling KA, Edwards KM, Walker FJ, Schwartz B, New Vaccine Surveillance Network. The impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on routine childhood vaccination and primary care use in 2 counties. Pediatrics 2006;118:1394-402.

Schwartz B, Wortley P. Mass vaccination for annual and pandemic influenza. Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology 2006;304;131-52.

Lindley MC, Wortley PM, Winston CA, Schwartz B. Programmatic factors related to smallpox vaccine uptake by healthcare workers and others. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2006;27:1242-5.

Prosser LA, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM, Hinrichsen VL. Meltzer MI, Molinari NA, Schwartz B, Thompson WW, Fukuda K, Lieu TA. Health benefits, risks, and cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of children.  Emerging Infectious Dis 2006;12:1548-58.

Schwartz B, Gellin B.  Vaccination strategies for an influenza pandemic.  J Infect Dis 2005;191:1207-9.

Prosser LA, Bridges CB, Uyecki TM, Rego VH, Ray GT, Meltzer MI, Schwartz B, Thompson WW, Fukuda K, Lieu TA.  Values for preventing influenza-related morbidity and vaccine adverse events in children.  Health & Quality of Life Outcomes. 2005;3:18.

Shui I, Kennedy A, Wooten K, Schwartz B, Gust D. Factors influencing African-American mothers' concerns about immunization safety: a summary of focus group findings. Journal of the National Medical Association 2005;97:657-66.

Broder KR, MacNeil A, Malone S, Schwartz B, Baughman AL, Murphy TV, Pickering LK, Moran JS. Who's calling the shots? Pediatricians' adherence to the 2001-2003 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-shortage recommendations. Pediatrics 2005;115:1479-87.

Daneman N, McGeer A, Low DE, Tyrrell G, Simor AE, McArthur M, Schwartz B. Jessamine P, Croxford R, Green KA. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. Hospital-acquired invasive group a streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada, 1992-2000 Clinical Infectious Diseases 2005;41:334-42.

Factor SH, Levine OS, Harrison LH, Farley MM, McGeer A, Skoff T, Wright C, Schwartz B, Schuchat A. Risk factors for pediatric invasive group A streptococcal disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005;11:1062-6.

Factor SH, LaClaire L, Bronsdon M, Suleymanova F, Altynbaeva G, Kadirov BA, Shamieva U, Dowell SF. Schuchat A, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Chorba T, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B carriage, Central Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005;11:1476-9.

Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK.  Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data.  Pediatrics 2004;114:793-804.

Humiston SG, Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Schaffer SJ, Santoli J, Shone L, Barth R, Mcnerny T, Schwartz B.  The feasibility of universal influenza vaccination for infants and toddlers.  Arch Ped Adolescent Med 2004;158:867-74.

Weinberg GA, Erdman DD, Edwards KM, Hall CB, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Schwartz B, New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Study Group.  Superiority of reverse transcription-PCR to conventional viral culture in the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections in children. J Infect Dis 2004;189:706-10.

Poehling KA, LaFleur BJ, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Mitchel E, Barth R, Schwartz B, Griffin MR.  Population based impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in young children.  Pediatrics 2004;114:755-61.

Bardenieier B, Yusuf H, Schwartz B, Gust D, Barker L, Rodewald L.  Are parental vaccine safety concerns associated with receipt of measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis, or hepatitis B vaccines by children?  Arch Ped Adolescent Med. 2004;158:569-75.

Iwane M, Edwards K, Szilagyi PG, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Weinberg GA, Coulen C, Poehling KA, Shone LP, Balter S, Hall CB, Erdman DD, Wooten K, Schwartz B, New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Population-based surveillance for hospitalizations associated with respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza viruses among young children in two US counties.  Pediatrics 2004;113:1758-64.

Gust DA, Strine TW, Maurice E, Smith PJ, Yusuf H, Wilkinson M, Battaglia M, Wright R, Schwartz B.  Under-immunization in children: Impact of vaccine safety concerns on immunization status.  Pediatrics 2004;114:e16-22.

Bronsdon MA, O’Brien KL, Facklam RR, Whitney CG, Schwartz B, Carlone GM.  Immunoblot method to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae and identify multiple serotypes from nasopharyngeal secretions.  J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:1590-600.

Sung L, Schwartz B, Abramson J, Greenberg DP, Edwards K, Feusner J, Allen U, Ritchie AK.  Smallpox vaccination recommendations for contacts of pediatric cancer patients.  Pediatric Blood and Cancer 2004;43:4-7.

Adamkiewicz TV, Sarnik S, Buchanan GR, Iyer RV, Miller ST, Pegelow CH, Rogers ZR, Vichinsky E, Elliott J, Facklam RR, O’Brien K, Schwartz B, Van Beneden CA, Cannon MJ, Eckman JR, Keyserling H, Sullivan K, Wong WY, Wang WC.  Invasive pneumococcal infections in children with sickle celld siease in the era of penicillin prophylaxis, antibiotic resistance and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination.  J Pediatrics 2003;143:438-44.

Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Schaffer S, Hummiston SG, Barth R, McInerny T, Shone L, Schwartz B.  Potential burden of universal influenza vaccination of young children on visits to primary care practices.  Pediatrics 2003;112:821-8.

Massoudi MS, Barker L, Schwartz B.  Effectiveness of post-exposure vaccination for the prevention of smallpox: results of a Delphi analysis.  J Infect Dis 2003;188:973-6.

Feikin DR, Davis M, Nwanyanwu OC, Kazembe PN, Barat LM, Wasas A, Bloland PB, Ziba C, Capper T, Huebner RE, Schwartz B, Klugman KP, Dowell SF.  Antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing rural Malawian children.  Pediatric Infect Dis J 2003;22:564-7.

Poehilig KA, Szilagyi PG, Edwards K, Mitchel E, Barth R, Hughes H, Lafleur B, Schaffer SJ, Schwartz B, Griffin MR.  Streptococcus pneumoniae-related illnesses in young children: secular trends and regional variation.  Pediatric Infect Dis J 2003;22:413-8.

Murphy TV, Smith PJ, Gargiullo PM, Schwartz B.  The first rotavirus vaccine and intussusception: epidemiological studies and policy decisions.  J Infect Dis 2003;187:1309-13.

Szilagyi PG, Iwane MK, Humiston SE, MD, Schaffer S, McInerny T, Shone L, Jennings J, Washington ML, Schwartz B. Time spent by primary care practices on pediatric influenza vaccination visits: Implications for universal influenza vaccination. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157:191-5.

Smith PJ, Schwartz B, Mokdad A, Bloch AB, McCauley M, Murphy TV.  The first oral rotavirus vaccine 1998-1999: estimates of uptake from the National Immunization Survey.  Pub Health Rep 2003;118:134-43.

Kotb M, Norrby-Teglund A, McGeer A, El-Sherbini H, Dorak MT, Khurshid A, Green K, Peples J, Wade J, Thomson G, Schwartz B, Low DE.  An immunogenetic and molecular basis for differences in outcomes of invasive group A streptococcal infections.  Nature Med 2002;8:1389-404.

Schaffer SJ, Szilagyi PG, Shone LP, Ambrose SJ, Dunn K, Barth RD, Edwards K, Weinberg GA, Balter S, Schwartz B. Physician Perspectives regarding Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.  Pediatr December 2002;110:e 68.

Schwartz B, Bisgard K.  Should adolescents receive a booster dose of pertussis vaccine?  Pediatr Infect Forum 2002;2:2-6.

Schwartz B. An intranasal influenza vaccine for the prevention of influenza in healthy children was cost-effective.  ACP Journal Club 2002;136:75.

Davis MM, McMahon SR, Santoli JM, Schwartz B, Clark SJ.  A national survey of physician practices regarding influenza vaccine.  J Gen Intern Med 2002;17:670-6.

O’Brien KL, Beall B, Barrett NL, Cieslak PR, Reingold A, Farley MM, Danila R, Zell ER, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Schuchat A.  Epidemiology of invasive group A Streptococus disease in the United States, 1995-1999.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:268-76.

Hennessy TW, Petersen KM, Bruden D, Parkinson AJ, Hurlburt D, Getty M, Schwartz B, Butler JC.  Changes in antibiotic prescribing practices and carriage of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: A controlled intervention trial in rural Alaska.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1543-50.

Hennessy TW, Bruden D, Petersen KM, Parkinson AJ, Hurlburt D, Getty M, Butler JC, Schwartz B.  Effect of high-dose amoxicillin on the prevalence of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Alaska.  JAMA 2002;287:2078-9.

Heffelfinger JD, Davis TE, Gebrain B, Bordeau R, Schwartz B, Dowell SF.  Evaluation of children with recurrent pneumonia diagnosed by World Health Organization criteria.  Pediatric Infect Dis J 2002;21:108-12.

Sharkawy A, Low DF, Saginur R, Gregson D, Schwartz B, Jessamine P, Green K, McGeer A.  Severe group A streptococcal soft-tissue infections in Ontario: 1992-1996.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:454-60.

Factor SH, Schillinger JA, Katler Hd, Saha S, Begum H, Hoesin A~, Hossain M, Dewitt V, Hanif M, Khan N, Perkins B, Black RE, Schwartz B.  Diagnosis and management of febrile children using the WHO/UNICEF guidelines for IMCI in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  Bull WHO 2001;79:1096-105.

Schwartz B, Orenstein WA.  Vaccination policies and programs: The Federal government’s role in making the system work.  Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 2001;28:697-711.

Belongia EA, Sullivan BJ, Chyou PH, Madagame E, Reed KD, Schwartz B.  A community intervention trial to promote judicious antibiotic use and reduce penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in children.  Pediatrics 2001;108:575-83.

Iwane MK, Schwartz B.  Pediatric influenza immunization: should healthy children be vaccinated?  Pediatr Ann 2001;30:354-7.

Lesko SM, O’Brien KL, Schwartz B, Vezina R, Mitchell AA.  Invasive group A streptococcal infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use among children with primary varicella.  Pediatrics 2001;107:1108-15.

O’Brien KL, Brondson MA, Dagan R, Yagupsky P, Janco J, Elliot J, Whitney CG, Yang YH, Robinson LG, Schwartz B, Carlone GC.  Evaluation of a medium (STGG) for transport and optimal recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions collected during field studies.  J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:1021-4.

Trepka MJ, Belongia EA, Po-Huang C, Davis JP, Schwartz B.  The effect of a community intervention trial on parental knowledge and awareness of antibiotic resistance and appropriate antibiotic use in children.  Pediatrics 2001;107:E6.

Reef  SE, Plotkin S, Cordero JF, Katz M, Copper L, Schwartz B, Zimmerman-Swain L, Danovaro MD, Wharton M.  Preparing for congenital rubella syndrome elimination: summary of the workshop on congenital rubella syndrome elimination in the United States.  Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:85-95.

O’Brien K, Schwartz B, Lesko SM, Vezina RM, Mitchell AA.  Necrotizing fasciitis during primary varicella.  Pediatrics 2000;105:1373-5.

Rowe AK, Deming MS, Schwartz B, Wasas A, Rolka H, Klugman KP.  Antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from children in the Central African Republic.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:438-44.

Feikin DR, Dowell SF, Nwanyanwu OC, Klugman KP, Kazembe PN, Graf C, Bloland PB, Ziba C, Huebner RE, Schwartz B.  Increased carriage of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant  Streptococcus pneumoniae in Malawian children after treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.  J Infect Dis 2000;181:1501-5.

Laupland KB, Davies HD, Low DE, Schwartz B, Green K, McGeer A.  Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicella-zoster virus infection.  Ontario Group A streptococcal Study Group.  Pediatrics 2000;105:E60.

Rowe AK, Schwartz B, Wassas A, Klugman KP.  Evaluation of the e-test as a means of determining the antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from children in the Central African Republic.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2000;45:132-3.

Morita JY, Kahn E, Thompson T, LeClaire L, Beall B, Gherardi G, O’Brien KL, Schwartz B.  Impact of azithromycin on oropharyngeal carriage of group A Streptococcus and nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999;19:41-6.

Basma H, Norrby-Teglund A, Guedez T, McGeer A, Low DE, El-Ahmedy O, Schwartz B, Kotb M.  Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infectious: role of protective humoral immunity.  Infection & Immunity 1999;67:1871-7.

Schwartz B, Rabinovich G.  Stimulating the development of orphan and other vaccines.  Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:832.

Waston RL, Dowell SF, Jayaraman M, Keyserling H, Kolczak M, Schwartz B.  Antimicrobial use for pediatric upper respiratory infections: reported practice, actual practice, and parent beliefs. Pediatrics 1999;104:1251-7.

Hoe NP, Nakashima K, Lukomski S, Grigsby D, Liu M, Kordari P, Dou SJ, Pan X, Vuopio-varkila J, Salmelinna S, McGeer A, Low DE, Schwartz B, Schuchat A, Naidich S, DeLorenzo D, Fu Yx, Musser JM.  Rapid selection of complement-inhibiting protein variants in group A streptococcus epidemic waves.  Nature Medicine 1999;5:924-9.

Basma H, Norrby-Teglund A, Guedez Y, McGeer A, Low DE, El-Ahmedy O, Schwartz B, Kotb M.  Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity.  Infect Immun 1999;67:1871-7.

Facklam R, Beall B, Efstratiou A, Fischetti V, Johnson D, Kaplan E, Kriz P, Lovgren M, Martin D, Schwartz B, Totolian A, Bessen D, Hollingshead S, Rubin F, Scott J, Tyrrell G.  Emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci.  Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:247-53.

Davies HD, Schwartz B.  Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children.  Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 1999;14:129-45.

Dowell SF, Butler JC, Giebink GS, Jacobs MR, Jernigan D, Musher DM, Rakowsky A, Schwart B.  Acute otitis media – management and surveillance in an era of pneumococcal resistance: a report from the Drug-Resistant Streptococcal pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group.  Pediatr Infet Dis J 1999;18:1-9.

Schwartz B.  Preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens in industrialized countries: the case for judicious antimicrobial use.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;28:211-3.

Levine OS, Farley M, Harrison LH, Lefkowitz L, McGeer A, Schwartz B.  Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in children: a population-based case-control study in North America.  Pediatr 1999;103:E28.

LeClaire L, Bronsdon M, Factor S, Suleymanova  F, Chorba T, Schwartz B, Facklam R. Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae in Central Asia.  Eur J Clin Micro Infect Dis 1998;17:746-7.

Kaul R, McGeer A, Norrby-Teglund A, Kotb M, Schwartz B, O-Rourke K, Talbot J, Low DE.  Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome – a comparative observational study.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:800-7.

Barden LS, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Lackey C.  Current attitudes regarding use of antimicrobial agents: results from physicians’ and parents’ focus group discussions.  Clin Pediatr 1998;37:665-71.

Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Phillips WR.  Appropriate use of antibiotics for URIs in chindren:  Part II.  Cough, pharyngitis, and the common cold.  The Pediatric URI Consensus Team.  Am Fam Physician 1998;581113-8.

Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Phillips WR.  Appropriate use of antibiotics for URIs in children: Part I.  Otitis media and cute sinusitis.  The Pediatric URI Consensus Team.  Am Fam Physician 1998;58:1113-8.

Levine OS, Schwartz B.  The rationale for population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;19:195-198. 

Levine OS, Schwartz B, Pierce N, Kane M.  Development, evaluation, and implementation of  Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for young children in developing countries: current status and priority actions.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;S95-113.

Belongia EA, Schwartz B.  Strategies for promoting judicious use of antibiotics by doctors and patients.  BMJ 1998;317:668-71.

Straus WL, Qazi SA, Kundi Z, Nomani NK, Schwartz B, Pakistan Cotrimoxazole Study Group.  Antimicrobial resistance and clinical effectiveness of contrimoxazole versus amoxicillin for pneumonia among children in Pakistan: randomised controlled trial.  Lancet 1998;352:270-4.

Zurawski CA, Bardsley M, Beall B, Elliott JA, Facklam R, Schwartz B, Farley MM.  Invasive group A streptococcal disease in metropolitan Atlanta: a population-based assessment.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:150-57.

Wald ER, Green MD, Schwartz B, Barbadora K.  A streptococcal score card revisited.  Ped Emerg Care 1998;14:109-11.

Basma H, Norrby-Teglund A, McGeer A, Low DE, El-Ahmedy O, Dale JB, Schwartz B, Kotb M.  Opsonic antibodies to the surface M protein of group A streptococci in pooled normal immunoglobulins (IVIG): potential impact on the clinical efficacy of IVIG therapy for severe invasive group A streptococcal infections.  Infect Immun 1998;66:2279-83.

Working group on prevention of invasive group A streptococcal infections.  Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case patients.  JAMA 1998;279:1175-80.

O’Brien KL, Selanikio JD, Hecdivert C, Placide M-F, Louis M, Barr JR, Hospidales J, Lewis MJ, Schwartz B, Philen RM, St. Victor S, Espindola J, Meddham LL, Denervill K.  Epidemic of pediatric deaths from acute renal failure caused by diethylene glycol poisoning.  JAMA 1998;2791175-80.

Schwartz B, Mainous AG III, Marcy SM.  Why do physicians prescribe antibiotics for children with upper respiratory infections?  JAMA 1998;279:881-2.

Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Dowell SF.  Pharyngitis – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:171-4.

Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Schwartz B.  Otitis media – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:165-71.

O’Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA.  Acute sinusitis – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:174-8.

Rosentein N, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Marcy SM, Schwartz B, Dowell SF.  The common cold – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:181-4.

O’Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA.  Cough illness/bronchitis – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:187-81.

Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Schwartz B. Principles of  judicious use of  antimicrobial agents for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections.  Pediatrics 1998;101:163-5.

Kalter HD, Schillinger JA, Hossain M, Burnham G, Saha S, de Wit V, Khan N, Schwartz B, Black RE.  Identifying sick children requiring referral to hospital in Bangladesh.  Bull WHO 1997;75(suppl 1):65-75.

Kalter HD, Burnham G, Kolstad PR, Hossaid M, Schillinger JA, Khan NZ, Saha S, de Wit V, Kenya-Mugisha N, Schwartz B, Black RE.  Evaluation of clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in Uganda and Bangladesh, in areas with and without malaria.  Bull WHO 1997;75(suppl 1):103-11.

Perkins BA, Zucker JR, Otieno J, Jafari HS, Paxton L, Redd SC, Nahlen BL, Schwartz B, Oloo AJ, Olango C, Gove S, Tulloch J, Campbell CC.  Evaluation of an integrated case management algorithm for childhood illness in an area of Kenya with malaria transmission.  Bull WHO 1997;75(suppl 1):33-42.

Schwartz B, Dowell S.  Management of otitis media:  the case for more judicious and targeted antibiotic use.  HMO Pract 1997;11:139.40.

Kaul R, McGeer A, Low DE, Green K, Schwartz B, Simor AE.  Population-based surveillance for group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis: clinical featured, prognostic indicators and microbiologic analysis of 77 cases.  Am J Med 1997;103:18-24.

Beall B, Facklam R, Hoenes T, Schwartz B.  Survey of emm sequences and T-antigen types from systemic Streptococcal pyogenes  infection isolates collected in San Francisco, California; Atlanta, Georgia; and Connecticut in 1994 and 1995.  J Clin Micro 1997;35:1231-5.

Beall B, Facklam R, Honenes T, Schwartz B.  Application of emm gene sequencing and T antigen serology for typing group A streptococcal systemic isolates.  Survey of random and outbreak-associated isolates.  Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;418:307-11.

Schwartz B, Bell DM, Hughes JM.  Preventing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. A call for action by clinicians, public health officials, and patients.  JAMA 1997;278:944-5.

Schwartz B, Butler JC.  Indications for the pneumococcal vaccine: more may not be better.  J Crit Ill 1997;12:202-4.

Musher DM, Groover JE, Reichler MR, Riedo FX, Schwartz B, Watson DA, Baughn RE, Breiman RF.  Emergence of antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae during outbreaks of  pneumonia: association with nasopharyngeal colonization.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:441-6.

Thompson BL, Dwyer DM, Ussery XT, Denman S, Vacek P, Schwartz B. Handwashing and glove use in a long term care facility.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:97-103.

Dowell SF, Schwartz B.  Resistant pneumococci: protecting patients through judicious antimicrobial use.  Am Fam Phys 1997;55:1647-54.

O’Brien KL, Levine OS, Schwartz B.  The changing epidemiology of group A Streptococcus infections.  Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1997;8:10-7.

Schwartz B, Yogev R.  An epidemic of emerging infectious diseases?  Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1996;7:226-30.

Davies HD, McGeer A, Schwartz B, Green K, Cann D, Simor AE, Low DE.  Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada.  N Engl J Med 1996;335:547-54.

Arnold KE, Leggiadro RJ, Breo,am RF, Lipman HB, Schwartz B, Appleton MA, Cleveland KO, Szeto HC, Hill BC, Tenover FC, Elliot JA, Facklam RR.  Risk factors for carriage of drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae  among children in Memphis, Tennessee.  J Pediatr 1996;128:757-64.

Shah R, Green M, Barbadora KA, Wagener WC, Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Wald ER. Comparison of M and T type antigen testing to field inversion gel electrophoresis in the differentiation of strains of group A Streptococcus. Pediatr Res 1995;38:988-92.

Watanabi-Onishi R, Low DE, McGeer A, Stevens DL, Schlievert PM, Newton D, Schwartz B, Keisworth B, Kotb M. Selective depletion of V beta-bearing cells in patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis 1995;171:74-84.

Davies HD, Low DE, Schwartz B, Scrivner S, Fletcher A, O’Rourke K, Ipp M, Goldbach M, Lloyd D, Saunders NR, Greenberg S, Farber R, Tannenbaum DW, Talbot J, McGeer A. Chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of group A streptococcal disease: evaluation of short course of cefixime or rifampin for eradication of asymptomatic carriage of group A streptococci. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:1294-9.

Sniadack DH, Schwartz B, Lipman H, Bogaerts J, Butler JC, Dagan R, Echaniz-Aviles G, Lloyd-Evans N, Fenoll A, Guirgis NL, Henrichsen J, Klugman K, Lehmann D Takala AK, Vandepitte J, Gove S, Breiman RF. Potential interventions for the prevention of childhood pneumonia: geographic and temporal differences in serotype and serogroup distribution of sterile site pneumococcal isolates from children -- implications for vaccine strategies. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14:503-10.

Stienecker RS, Steinberg JP, Schwartz B, Metchock B, Kozarsky PE. Evaluation of travelers returning from the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, Spain: did they acquire resistant pneumococci and meningococci? Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:731-2.

Levine OS, Schwartz B. Monitoring trends in acute rheumatic fever in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995 14:823-4.

Schwartz B, Giebink GS, Henderson FW, Reichler MR, Jereb J, Collet JP. Respiratory infections in day care. Pediatrics 1994;94(suppl 6):1018-20.

Engelgau MM, Woernle CH, Schwartz B, Vance NJ, Horan JM. Invasive group A Streptococcus carriage in a child care centre after a fatal case. Arch Dis Child 1994;71:318-22.

Schwartz B, Fries S, Fitzgibbon AM, Lipman H. Pediatricians’ diagnostic approach to pharyngitis and impact of CLIA 1988 on office diagnostic tests. JAMA 1994;271:234-38.

Brooks JB, Almenoff PL, Daneshvar MI, Johnson AH, Spechart VJ, Basta MT, Unger SE, King JN, Schwartz B. Detection of malignancy associated metabolites in the sera of cancer patients by electron capture gas chromatography. Br J Cancer 1994;69:655-62.

Kotb M., Ohnishi R, Stevens D, McGeer A, Schlievert P, Schwartz B, Kreisworth B, Ontario Streptococcal Group, Low D. T-cell receptor V gene repertoire of patients with severe, invasive streptococcal infections. Totolian (ed.), Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future. Proceedings of the XII Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Strepococcal Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 6-10, Lancer Publications, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1993, p. 466-69.

Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Elliott JA. Trends in group A streptococcal serotype distribution: the end of the M-type 1 epidemic in the U.S. Totolian (ed.), Pathogenic Streptococci: Present and Future. Proceedings of the XII Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 6-10, Lancer Publications, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1993, p. 3-5.

Sih T, Moura R, Caldas S, Schwartz B. Prophylaxis for recurrent otitis media: a Brazilian study. Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1993;25:19-24.

Sniadack DH, Ostroff SM, Karlix MA, Smithwick RW, Schwartz B, Sprauer MA, Solcox VA, Good RC. A nosocomial pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium xenopi due to a contaminated potable water supply: lessons in prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14:636-41.

Mastro TD, Nomani NK, Ishaq Z, Ghafoor A, Shaukat NF, Esko E, Leininen M, Henrichsen J, Breiman RF, Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Gove S. Use of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from children in Pakistan for surveillance for antimicrobial resistance. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:824-30.

Simon PA, Chen RT, Elliott JA, Schwartz B. Outbreak of pyogenic abscesses after diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:368-71.

Talkington DF, Schwartz B, Black C, et al. Association of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates with clinical components of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Infect Immun 1993;61:3369-74.

Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: rationale and consensus definition. JAMA 1993;269:390-91.

Hoge CW, Schwartz B, Talkington DF, et al. The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the mergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. JAMA 1993;269:394-89.

Auerbach SB, Schwartz B, Williams D, Fiorelli MG, Adimora AA, Breiman RF, Jarvis WR. Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home: Lessons on prevention and control. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1017-22.

Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Breiman RF, GAS Study Group. The changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infections in the United States: Association with serotype. In: G. Orifici (ed.): New Perspectives on Streptococci and Streptococcal Infections. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, 1992. p. 17-19.

McNutt LA, Casiano-Colon AE, Coles FB, Morse DL, Schwartz B. et al. Two outbreaks of primarily noninvasive group A streptococcal disease in the same nursing home. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:742-47.

Schwartz B, Ussery XT. Group A streptococcal outbreaks in nursing homes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:742-47.

Schwartz B, Elliott JA, Butler JC, Simon PA, et al. Clusters of invasive group A streptococcal infections in family, hospital, and nursing home settings. Clin Infect Dis 1992;15:277-84.

Schulte JM, Brown GR, Zetzman MR, Schwartz B, Green HG, Haley CE, Anderson RJ. Changing immunization referral patterns among pediatricians and family practice physicians, Dallas County, Texas, 1988. Pediatrics 1991;87:204-7.

Butler JC, Schwartz, B, Kimball J, Davis JP. Severe infections associated with group A -hemolytic streptococcal infections. Wis Med J 1991;90:525-9.

Schwartz B, Jackson L. Invasive group B streptococcal disease in adults – Reply (letter) JAMA 1991;226:3284.

Schwartz B. Chemoprophylaxis for bacterial infections: principles of and application to meningococcal infections. Rev Infect Dis 1991:suppl 2:170-3.

Schwartz B, Facklam RR. Manual for the national surveillance of antimicrobic resistance of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991. 

Schwartz B, Schuchat A, Oxtoby MJ, Hightower AH, Broome CV. Invasive group B streptococcal disease in adults: A population based study in metropolitan Atlanta. JAMA 1991;266:1112-4.

Broome CV, Gellin BG, Schwartz B. Epidemiology of listeriosis in the United States. In:Miller AJ, Smith JL, Somkuti GA, eds. Foodborne Lilsteriosis. Society for Industrial Microbiology 1990:61-5.

Bibb WF, Gellin BG, Weaver R, Schwartz B, Plikaytis BD, Reeves MW, Pinner RW, Broome CV. Analysis of clinical and food-borne isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in the United States by multilocus enzyme elctrophoresis and application of the method to epidemiologic investigations. Appl Environ Microbiol 1990;56:2133-41.

Schwartz B, Broome CV. Listeria Epidemic – Reply (letter). J Infect Dis 1990;162:274-5.

Schwartz B, Pinner RW, Broome CV. Dietary risk factors for sporadic listeriosis: Association with consumption of uncooked hot dogs and undercooked chicken. In: Miller AJ, Smith JL, Somkuti GA, eds. Foodborne Listeriosis. Society for Industrial Microbiology 1990:67-70.

Schwartz B, Breiman RF. Pneumococcal immunization: from policy to practice. JAMA 1990;264:1154-5.

Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Breiman RF. Changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infections in the USA. Lancet 1990;336:1167-71.

Gaventa S, Reingold AL, Hightower AW, Broome CV, Schwartz B, Hoppe C, Harwell J, Lefkowitz LK, Makintubee S. Cundiff D, Sitze S. Active surveillance of toxic shock syndrome in the United States. Rev Infect Dis 1989;11(S1):S28-34.

Bibb WF, Schwartz B, Gellin BG, Plikaytis BD, Weaver RE. Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes by multilocus enzyme electorphoresis and application of the method to epidemiologic investigations. Int J Food Microbiol 1989;8:233-9.

Moore PS, Reeves MW, Schwartz B, Gellin BG, Broome CV. Intercontinental spread of an epidemic group A Neisseria meningitides strain. Lancet 1989;2:260-62.

Schwartz B, Gaventa S, Broome CV, Reingold AL, Hightower AW, Perlman JA, Wolf PH. Non-menstrual toxic shock syndrome associated with barrier contraceptives: Report of a case-control study. Rev Infect Dis 1989;11(S1):S43-9.

Schwartz B, Moore PS, Broome CV. Global epidemiology of meningococcal Disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 1989;2:s118-24.

Schwartz B, Harrison L, Motter JS, Motter RN, Hightower AW, Broome CV. Investigation of an outbreak of Moraxella conjunctivitis at a Navajo boarding school: Risk factors for infection and carriage. Am J Ophthalmol 1989;107:341-7.

Schwartz B, Hexter D, Broome CV, Hightower AW, Hirschhorn RB, Porter JD, Hayes PS, Bibb WF, Lorber B, Faris DG. Investigation of an outbreak of listeriosis: New hypotheses for the etiology of epidemic L. monocytogenes infections. J Infect Dis 1989; 159:680-5.

Schwartz B, Al-Tobaiqi A, Al-Ruwais A, Fontaine RE, A׳ashi J, Hightower AW, Broome CV, Music SI. Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and rifampin in eradicating pharyngeal carriage of group A Neisseria meningitides. Lancet 1988;1:1240-42.

Schwartz B, Ciesielski CA, Broome CV, Gaventa S, Brown GR, Gellin BGF, Hightower AW, Mascola L. Association of sporadic listeriosis with consumption of uncooked hot dogs and undercooked chicken. Lancet 1988;2:799-82

Schwartz B, Hoffman T. Inhibition of tumor cell line alkaline phosphatase by human peripheral blood monocytes: Correlation with growth inhibitory activity. Int Arch of Allergy and Appl Immunol 1984;73:221-24.

Book Chapters

Schwartz B, Wortley P.  Mass vaccination for annual and pandemic influenza.  In S. Plotkin (ed.), Mass Vaccination.  New York: Williams and Wilkins.  2005  

Schwartz B, Ortega-Sanchez I.  Economic analysis.  In: MM  Levine (ed.), New Generation Vaccines, 2nd edition.  New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2004, p 107-116.

Schwartz B.  Epidemiology and public health.  In: S. Long (ed.), Principles and Practices of Pediatric Infectious Disease, 2nd edition.  New York: Churchill Livingstone 2002, p. 9-17.  

Davies HD, Schwartz B.  Invasive group A streptococcal infections in children.  In: Arnonoff SC, Hughes WT, Kohl S, Prince A, Wald ER, (eds.), Advances in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Volume 14.  St. Louis: Mosby Inc. 1998.

Low DE, Schwartz B, McGeer A.  The reemergence of severe group A streptococcal disease: an evolutionary perspective.  In: Hughes J, Scheld M, (eds.), Emerging Infections, I.  Washington D.C.: ASM Press 1997.

Levine OS, Schwartz B.  Economic analysis.  In: MM  Levine (ed.), New Generation Vaccines.  New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1997, p. 69-77.

Schwartz B.  Epidemiology and Public Health.  In: S. Long (ed.), Principles and Practices of Pediatric Infectious Disease.  New York: Churchill Livingstone 1997, p. 8-19.  

Schwartz B, O’Brien KL.  Streptococcal infections.  In: H. DuPont (ed.), Textbook of Internal Medicine, New York: Lippencott-Raven, 1997, p. 1614-22. 

Schools & Programs